• Dynasties
  • New Kingdom
  • Setnakhte

  • Setnakhte Rule:20th Dynasty: 1190-1186 BC
    Predecessor:Queen Tawosret
    Father:Possibly grandson of Ramses 2
    Nomen:Birth name: Seth is victorious
    Praenomen:Throne name: Userkare - The soul of Ra is strong
    ConsortsHe married queen Tiy-merenese a daughter of Merenptah in order to strengthen his claim to the throne
    Capital City:- He moved his capital to Memphis after his coronation ceremony at Thebes
    Reign:

    Pharaoh of the Exodus?
    - The Exodus in its original historical form was not miraculous event
    After a period of disruption and chaos following the death of Seti 2, the rebel Amenmesse (Moses) re-enters the Delta with the help of Asiatic followers
    - Setnakhte usurped the throne from the reigning Queen Tawosret founding the 20th Dynasty, and marched to repel the invasion.

    The Papyrus Harris describes how Setnakhte rose to power and put down the rebellions fermented by Asians, and relieved the besieged cities of Egypt and reopened the temples restoring their revenue. "His Majesty, L.P.H, like his father Seti , stretched out his arms in order to rid Egypt of (those who) violate her.......repelling the foe before him to withdraw for the fear of him in their hearts. They flee like birds in frenzied flight, the Hawk close behind them. They leave behind silver and much gold to the Egyptians because of their helpless retreat from the strong pursuit of Egypt's Finest--the clever ones (among them) manage to escape no further than their sluggards..."

    • The followers of Amenmesse (Moses) were doing what was required as stated in Exodus 12: 12:35 And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment
    • According to the Bible, as the Hebrews left Egypt, and Pharaoh sent 600 chariots to chase the runaway Hebrews
    • However Setnakhte was not successful chasing them beyond the Red Sea because his chariots and horses were unable to continue the journey in the marshlands.
    • Ancient Egyptian texts mention an area called Patchoufy: "The Reeds" this is probably the location of their trap. In these shallow reed swamps the Egyptian army was not completely decimated, many of the horses might have been killed, chariots were stuck in the mud. But the remaining army might have returned back, Setnakhte however might have actually died in this expedition, since his reign was cut short, and his mummy was never found
    • The Bible in the original Hebrew, the word 'red' is mistranslated. In the Hebrew bible Moses and his people cross the 'yam suph' - the Sea of Reeds.
    • The Bible however converts this unsuccessful chase into a miracle and states "He rebuked the Red sea also, and it was dried up: so he led them through the depths, as through the wilderness. And he saved them from the hand of him that hated them, and redeemed them from the hand of the enemy. And the waters covered their enemies"
    • An Stelae found on the island of Elephantine describes how Setnakhte expelled the Asian, who fled Egypt abandoning the gold which they looted from Egyptian temples.
    • This Stelae uses the word "expel" not the word "destroy", which implies that the enemy was able to leave or escape. Significantly, the Stelae does not say that Setnakhte killed the leader of the rebellion, rather he is only credited with establishing order after a period of chaos and civil war

    construction projects
    - Setnakhte began the construction of a Temple dedicated to Amun in Karnak, but due to his short reign, it was his son Ramses 3 who completed this structure

    Burial:- Initially he started building a tomb KV11, in the Valley of Kings, but worked stopped suddenly due to the king unexpected death with no tomb ready for the burial
    The tomb of Queen Tawosret KV14 was dismantled for Setnakhte's use
    - The mummy of Setnakhte however was not positively identified or found, due to the fact that he might have actually drowned during the Exodus, and his burial might have been purely symbolical, and no body was recovered
    - However an identified mummy found in the Deir el Bahri cache KV 35, and has been suggested to indeed belong to Setnakhte
    This mummy was found resting inside a wooden boat and not a conventional Sarcophagus, possibly in an indication to his death in the water
    Successor:His son Ramses 3 out of Queen Tiy-merenese, succeeded him and was the last great Pharaoh
    Wikipedia:Setnakhte