• Arts
  • Architecture
  • Kom Ombo City and Temple

  • Kom Ombo Temple
    Kom Ombo Temple Plan
    Location Upper Egypt - 48 km north of Aswan
    East bank of the Nile
    Nome1st nome of Upper Egypt Land of the arch - the 1st Nome of Upper Egypt
    Type of SettlementGarrison and religious town
    Local deitySobek and Horus
    Ancient nameEgyptian - Nubt (city of gold)
    Greek - Ombi
    Historical Development- Nubt was the southern Egyptian border.
    - In the Early Dynastic Period no remarkable archeological remains occur, because the Nile, at this portion of its course, was ill-suited to a dense population in antiquity, where it runs between steep and narrow banks.
    - Sobek's chief sanctuary was at Kom Ombo where there were huge numbers of crocodiles kept within the temple and many mummified crocodiles have been found in cemeteries, some of which can be seen in the temple sanctuary today. In the Osiris myth Sobek helped Horus in defeating the wicked god Seth
    - In the Ptolemaic Period the city raised to prominence and became Capital of the Nome
    Temple Layout- There was an earlier structure from the 18th Dynasty but little remains.
    - Construction was started by Ptolemy 6 Philometor in about 160 BC
    - The layout is unique because it combines two temples in one with each side having its own gateways and chapels. Everything is duplicated along the main axis.
    - Dedicated to Sobek the crocodile god, and Horus the falcon headed god.
    1. The main entrance pylon - now destroyed
    2. Open Court - with remains of a Roman columned portico with its sixteen painted columns on eight on each side
    3. Altar - In the centre of the court stands the base of an granite altar where the sacred boat was placed during processions.
    4. Five lotus -shaped column and a screen wall with two entrances corresponding to the temples of Horus and of Sobek open in this wall.
    5. The first hypostyle hall - has two transversal rows of lotus -shaped columns each with a bill capital. The central row of columns divides the hall in two corresponding to the two sanctuaries.
      The column shafts are all carved with reliefs showing the Pharaoh rendering homage to the various gods.
      The same offering scenes are repeated on the walls of the hall, the Pharaohs depicted include Cleopatra 6.
      The ceiling is decorated with astronomical scenes,
    6. Two distinctly separate entrances lead to the second hypostyle hall - This hall is known as the "hall of offering", this hall is smaller that the first hall,
    7. Behind the second hypostyle are three antechambers, but they are now almost destroyed. All three rooms were built by Ptolemy 6, Philometor and he is shown in the reliefs on the walls
    8. The twin sanctuaries of Sobek (left) and Horus (right), with their associated cult chambers on either side. The sanctuaries were clearly separated by a hidden chamber thought to be where the priest acting as the 'Oracle' would be concealed
    9. A double passageway surrounds the entire temple, seven small rooms are located in the interior passageway behind the shrines, with a staircase leading to the roof
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    Photo Gallery: Kom Ombo