• Government
  • Egyptian Law and Justice

  • Comparison Between Egyptian and Babylonian Laws

    Criteria Egyptian Law and Justice Babylonian Law
    ImagesEgyptian Law Babylonian Law
    Law Concept - Egyptian law was based on a common sense view of right and wrong
    - Some legal cases were resolved by consultation with a divine oracle. The oracle, usually a statue of Maat, was asked a yes or no question to which the oracle could respond by a movement through the hidden actions of a priest
    - The ruling principle was the "lex talionis" - An Eye for an Eye and a tooth for a tooth
    Archeology - Very few remains of legal letters and documents
    - No formal Egyptian code of law has been preserved
    - Sources of information regarding criminal law are limited to narratives of ancient Greek writers such as Strabo and Herodotus, these views are superficial and often contradictory
    - The material for the study of Babylonian law is extensive. Contracts exist in the thousands, including conveyances, bonds, receipts, accounts, and the actual legal decisions given by the judges in the law courts
    - The discovery of the celebrated Code of Hammurabi has made a systematic study of Babylonian laws possible
    - The temple archives of each city, had vast stores of records of judicial decisions,
    Law Reinforcement - Egyptian society operated with reference to decrees of the Pharaoh, having the force of law,
    - No judges and no courts - government officials judged cases; no Egyptian individuals are known whose only official capacity was to hear legal cases.
    - A board of officials was set up for particular short-term tasks, by royal commission, such as the judgment of an important legal case
    - Policemen guarded public places, sometimes making use of dogs.
    - Professional judges worked at established courthouses in every city
    - Babylon and a superior court to those of provincial towns
    - The royal king, could only pardon when private resentment was appeased
    - Judges are strictly supervised, and appeal was allowed
    Patron god - Maat represented truth, order, balance and justice in the universe. - Shamash, the Sun god, was their god of Law and Justice