• Egyptian Industry and Technology

  • Comparison Between Egyptian and Viking Industries and Technology

    CriteriaEgyptian Industries Viking Industries
    ImagesEgyptian Sphinx Viking Textiles
    Natural Resources
    • Vast materials and resources were used and exploited by Egyptians, including the use of animal products, building materials, cosmetics, perfumes, fibers and glass
    • Processing of these raw materials varied over time, and a gradual processes of technological change by the innovations of the Bronze and Iron Ages
    • With the passage of time, as resources dried up and became scarce, Egyptians were unable to maintain their costly technology, this can be observed clearly by the shift from monumental pyramid construction in the Old Kingdom to the small royal tombs of the Valley of the Kings in the New Kingdom
    • Funerary religious beliefs required the deceased to be buried with their personal belongings in elaborated tombs, thus adding to the burden of unrecyclable resources
    • However Egyptians obsession with afterlife and monumental tombs, left humanity with a lasting heritage of recorded history
    • Viking industry and technology did not rely on the usage of vast natural resources, in fact much of their industry was recyclable
    • The is why the Vikings were successful in invading and settling in many parts of Europe, without the need of finding and exploiting vast resources
    • The deceased were burnt into ashes, and their belongings reused and recycled
    • The overall concept of economic use of natural resources, though successful, left the world with few lasting traces of the Viking culture.
    Stones
    • Architects and artists in Egypt shaped many kinds of stones and gems with consummate mastery in architecture and tools
    • Wood was scarce and rarely used
    • Viking used available wood and timber in their domestic building projects and in the manufacture of tools
    Glass
    • Considered a costly artificial semi-precious stone, glass was manufactured in state owned factories, and was used by the nobility only
    • Glass was made from melting the raw materials of silica quartz and soda,
    • Glass was used for common drinking vessels, jewelry, enameling and beads. Traces of glass furnaces have been found at England, Denmark and northern Germany.
    • Glass was made by melting down broken glass and then recycling it.
    Papyrus
    • The need to record history, led the Egyptians to invent the first paper in history in 3000 BC, and a writing system
    • manufacture of papyrus was a complicated and time consuming process
    • Viking had no interest in recording historical events, thus did not develop a writing system of their own, and made no use of paper
    Metallurgy
    • Mines and quarries were entirely monopolies of the State, and their management being entrusted to the highest officials
    • Metallurgical practice were of extreme importance to the State and were carefully guarded from the vulgar
    • Objects of bronze and silver were valued highly as utility objects
    • The production of cast metal objects was a large-scale and important occupation, as is evident from the workshops excavated
    Ship Building
    • The Egyptians were the first recorded people to use sails on their ships.
    • As there was very little wood available, most vessels were made of bundled papyrus reeds
    • Wood was the fundamental construction material, it was used from the planks for the hull to the mast and oars.
    Hunting and Stockbreeding
    • Hunting was an auxiliary recreational activity
    • Stockbreeding provided for the necessary animal proteins in the Egyptian diet.
    • Hunting was a fundamental contributor to the human food supply, and meat was an important component of the Viking diet
    Perfumes
    • the use of Perfumes and the significance they had on the concept of health, beauty and religious rituals
    • The practical Viking culture, which intended to serve a purpose without elaboration, did not develop any luxurious or fragrance Industries
    Textiles
    Leather
    • Linen light fabric, was appropriate for hot the climate
    • Clothing was not important for surviving in the hot climate, children and servants were fully naked. The Textiles industry was not of a vital importance
    • Leather - Not of major importance in Egypt's hot climate
    • Wool fabric was appropriate for the cold humid climate
    • An advanced textile and Leather industry was essential for surviving the cold weather